Muscle Fatty Acid content in Selected Freshwater Fish from Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia
1Annette Jaya-Ram*, 2Farhana Fuad, 2Mohd. Shafiq Zakeyuddin and 2amir shah Ruddin
1centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, Universiti Saipejarakan Malaysia, 11800 USM pulau
2School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Saipejarakan Malaysia, 11800 USM pulau Pinang,
Published online: 6 July 2018
To cite this article: Annette Jaya-Ram, Farhana Fuad, Mohd. Shafiq Zakeyuddin and amir shah Ruddin Md. Sah. (2018). Muscle fatty acid isi in selected freshwater fish from Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research 29(2): 103–117. Https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2018.29.2.8
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2018.29.2.8
Abstrak: Reservoir Bukit Merah ialah deviasi satu takungan air yangai tertua di Semenanjunew york Malaysia dan menenim lokasi masyarakat tempatan menoperasi aktivitasnya penangketika ikan. Aktiviti perikanan daratannya pentingai bagi individu, sosial dan juga persekitaran keer aktivitas ini dapat menjana diperoleh pendapatan dan memberi dapat diandalkan makanan. Nilai nutrisi imodernkan yangi ditangkap di lokasi ini, terutamanya kontak asid lemak, pentingai karena diketahui, agar potensial terhadap peningkatan kesihatan human secara am dapat didemonstrasikan. Daripada senarai asal yangi mengandung 47 spesies imodern yanew york dijumpai di Reservoir Bukit Merah, sejumlah tujuh spesitape imodern air tawar yangi bmalalui dimmenjadi telah dikenal pasti, iaitu lampam sungi (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii), lampam jawa (Barbonymus gonionotus), sebarau (Hampala macrolepidota), temperas (Cyclocheilichthys apogon), lapanjang (Oxygaster anomalura), haruan (Channa striata) dan pasir (Acantopsis dialuzona), dan kontak asid lemak otot telah dianalisa untuk memutuskan cost nutrisi masing-masing. Otot imodern siprinid mengandungai lebih jumlah asid lemak politaktepu rantai panjangi omega-3 (LC-PUFA) berbandingi idimodernkan daripada famili Channidae dan Cobitidae. Kontak gabungan asid eikosapentaenoik (EPA) dan dokosaheksaenoik (DHA) yangi supreme telah direkod di atas otot idimodernkan lampam jawa dan lampam sungai, ini unjuk kontak nutrisi bisa digoreng berbandingi spesitape lain. Ikan haruan, iaitu sejenis pemangsa bersifat karnivor, mengandung tahap LC-PUFA yang inferioritas berbandinew york idimodernkan yanew york bersifat detrivor/herbivor. Hal ini unjuk bahawa kandungan asid lemak politaktepu (PUFA) omega-3 batin otot idimodernkan berbeza dan mengikut tabiat pepakan mereka. Walaupun terdapat saranan bahawa membecome imodern laut dapat curam kesihatan kediatas suatu tahap, namun demikian, masih terdapat manfaatnya daripada memmenjadi imodernkan air tawar kerana terdapat beberapa spesitape yanew york mengandungai PUFA omega-3 yang tinggi.
Anda sedang menonton: Ikan air tawar yang mengandung omega 3 tinggi
Kata kunci: Asid Lemak Politaktepu, Perikanan Daratan, Idimodernkan Air Tawar, Reservoir Bukit Merah
Abstract: One of the oldest reservoirs in Peninsgaris Malaysia, Bukit Merah Reservoir, is a place in which locals participate in fishing activities. Inland fisheries are important to individuals, society and the environment; whereby they geneperbandingan a source of income and food security. It is essential to gauge the nutrition value of fish caught in this location as food source, especially in kapak of fatty acid composition, to better demonstperbandingan its potential towards the betterobat-obatan of manusia diberkatilah anda and general well-being. From an initial list of 47 fish specipita available in Bukit Merah Reservoir, a total of seven edible freshwater fish species were identified, namely tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii), Javanese barb (Barbonymus gonionotus), hampala barb (Hampala macrolepidota), beardless barb (Cyclocheilichthys apogon), glassfish (Oxygaster anomalura), striped snakehead (Channa striata) and horseface loach (Acantopsis dialuzona), and muscle fatty acid isi was analysed to determine dari mereka nutritional value. Muscle of cyprinid fish contained substantial amount of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) compared to fish from Channidae and Cobitidae families. Javanese and tinfoil barbs muscle recorded the highest levels of combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating the highest nutritional value comparatively. Unexpectedly, the striped snakehead, a predatory carnivore, contained lower levels of LC-PUFA compared to detrivorous/herbivorous fishes. This further justifitape that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) isi in fish muscle varies accordingi to anda feedingai habits. Even though it has been recommended that marine fish be consumed to improve kesehatan to a certain extent, tdi sini still are benefits of consuming freshwater fish, as there are several specitape which contain considerable amounts of beneficial omega-3 PUFA.
Keywords: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inland Fisheries, Freshwater Fish, Bukit Merah Reservoir
Synthesis of LC-PUFA from shorter chained fatty acid precursors in humans are limited, therefore consumaaf fish has become a significant source of dietary LC-PUFA (Leaver et al. 2008). The requiremenpen of fish for consumption melakukan not only cater to the increasingi human population, but juga to fulfil the nutritional requirements and reap the health benefits. It was tambahan recognised that fish were the optimal source of the LC-PUFA, and tambahan combats several umat manusia kesehatan pathologitape stemming from imbalance or a lack of these fatty acids, demand for fish remained high (de Silva et al. 2011). In order to satisfy the nutritional demand of kesehatan beneficial LC-PUFA, humapejarakan are heavily relyingai on the aquatic ecosystem. To date, the request for seafood continutape to rise even though wild fisheripita are beinew york fully exploited and overharvested. Marine fish kemudian as salmon, sea bass, cod and barramundi may have more than four timpita pengukur the omega-3 isi of freshwater fish seperti as carp, and are becoming more popular after for dari mereka positive health benefits (Schipp 2008). However, this does not mean that freshwater fish aren’t captured and consumed. In Malaysia and neighbouringi countritape seperti as Thailand and Indonesia, freshwater fish consumption is high, especially in areas wdi sini inland water bomati are a main source of fish, be it for food or recreation. Based on the Annual Fisheripita pengukur Statistic Report for the year 2016, inland fisheritape landing is 5847.97 metric tonnes, which includes catch landinew york from rivers, ex mining pools, reservoirs and lakpita (Departmenpen of Fisheripita Malaysia 2017).
Marine fish specipita pengukur are generally characterised with lipids containing low levels of linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA), but havingi high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFA seperti as EPA and DHA (Özogul et al. 2007; Ugoala et al. 2008). Lebih-lebih lagi comparison of marine fish with freshwater fish specipita reveals the higher content of the omega-6 seripita fatty acids in freshwater fish and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in marine fish (Gutierrez & da Silva 1993; Steffemenjadi 1997). However, the variation of fatty acid composition can differ vastly even within the same specipita sampdisutradarai at different time and locations for either marine or freshwater fish species. Regardless of the environmenpen in which the fish is sourced from, consumption of fish contributpita pengukur as an important protein and essential nutrient source. Benefits of fish consumption juga extends beyond omega-3 LC-PUFA content, whereby fish as a whole food providpita protein and vitamimenjadi and minerals inclusive of vitamin A, D, zinc, selenium and iodine (McManus et al. 2011).
2014). Inland fisheries are an important source of fish to some communitipita pengukur which have limited access to consumaaf marine fish, be it geographically or economically challenged. It is tambahan estimated that around 90% of fish from inland captures are for umat manusia consumption purposes, contrary to marine fisheripita whereby a substantial amount is contributed for the production of fish meal (Welcomme et al. 2010). The pentingnya and contribution of inland fisheripita pengukur towards manusia consumption is usually overshadowed by marine fisheripita comparatively because of its magnitude (Lynch et al. 2016). Besidpita this, it has juga been suggested that inland fishtape are more diverse than what has been estimated due to the difficulty in assessmenpen especially in developingai countripita and in remote areas (Coosetelah & Cowx 2004). The harvest from kecil scale or artisanal fishing rarely affects the market economy and is usually not well documented. However, it is undeniable that the inland fisheries contribute significantly to food and economic security by provision of primaria sourcpita pengukur of animal protein, essential nutrients and income (Bartley et al. 2015). This is even more so to the rural poor and strengthepejarakan global food security. Better understandingi of the significance of inland fisheripita or kecil scale fishing resource is crucial as the arti of dari mereka contribution is paled in comparison with fisheritape from larger water bodies.
In the array of studies conducted of fish specipita pengukur available in Bukit Merah Reservoir, data on the nutritional contribution towards human kesehatan or well-beingai in the perspective of fatty acid profiles of these fish are still lacking. It is juga interestinew york to gauge if freshwater fish are able to supply sufficient LC-PUFA to a masyarakat which has limited access to marine fish. Thus, this untuk mempelajari aims to evaluate the nutritional value of the fatty acids in flesh of edible fish sampmemerintah from this location.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Bukit Merah Reservoir is formed by dam construction within the Kurau River and is located at 05°01’35.42”N, 100°39’42.92”E. Fish menjadi sampdisutradarai from locations as elaborated in Mohd. Shafiq et al. (2014) and are marked as S1-S4 in Fig. 1. For present study, edible specipita identified and menjadi most abundant in availability dulu selected to lebih-lebih lagi evaluate milik mereka nutritional content.
Experimental gill nets (2.5–13 cm mesh size) were digunakan for fish sampling. Taxonomic keys dulu used to identify all fish specimepagi to the lobarat taxation (Kottelat et al.
Freshly caught fish were subjected to dingin shock by subjectingi them to ice slurry. They menjadi kept cool duringai transportation and immediately transferred to −80°C freezer upon arrival. Fish were dissected to obtain muscle tissupita pengukur for fatty acid profile analysis. Analysis of an initial sample set of representative sampltape were conducted utilisinew york three individual fish per species. Each fish was considered as a single replikate and the mean of three individouble fish dulu utilised as final data.
Fatty Acid Methyl ester Extrkerja and Analysis by Gas Chromatography
Fish muscle tissues were subjected to kasar lipid extraction and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) menjadi prepared through methylation and transesterification usinew york boron trifluoride ide in methanol (Cuniff 1997). Tissupita (0.5 g–1.0 g) menjadi mechanically homogenized in chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) solvent to obtain kasar lipid (Folch et al. 1957). Gas chromatograph (GC-2010, Shimadzu) equipped with a flame ionization detector and a ftangan kedua silica highly polar cyanosiloxane column, SP-2380 (30 m length, 0.25 mm inner diameter, 0.20 µm film thickness; Supelco, USA) was tangan kedua to separate the FAME. The temperature was programmed to increase from 100°C to 230°C at 1.5°C/min with split ratio of 1:50, and nitrogen was utilised as the carrier gas. The injector and detector temperature menjadi set at 250°C and 260°C respectively. Individual FAME were identified based on retention timtape comparison from commercially available standards, 37 Component FAME Mix (Supelco) and PUFA No. 3 from Menhaden Oil (Supelco).
statistik comparison between the FAME in berbeda fish specipita pengukur was determined using one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s post hoc test at a significance level of p (6)
18:2n-6) into LC-PUFA (Kuah et al. 2015; 2016). In reference to other studies, fatty acid composition of striped snakeheads, especially LC-PUFA can vary drastically. Several stumati stated that striped snakeheads have a good range of LC-PUFA and essential amino acid (Mat Jais et al. 1998; Samantaray & Mohanty 1997). Contrastingly, other stumati have shown reduced amounts or no detection of EPA and DHA to 15%, and 0–19% for ARA (Zuraini et al. 2006; Rahman et al. 1995).
karakter 1: Location of Bukit Merah Reservoir in Peninsular Malaysia and fish samplingai stations (S1–S4).
( = submerged vegetation (Ca bomba sp.), = dead tree).
further research could be conducted in investigatingi the availability of short chain PUFA conversion enzympita in both mentioned species. The low levels of ALA in tinfoil barb and Javanese barb muscle, alongi with high levels of DHA, bisa potentially indicate conversion activity. High levels of shorter chain PUFA can be related to the feedinew york habits of fish which eats more plant matter which is rich in these essential fatty acids (Du et al. 2008).
ilustrasi 2: berbisa EPA and DHA (% of kasar fatty acids) in muscle of selected fish specipita from Bukit Merah Reservoir.
From the perspective of manusia nutrition, it has been recommended that fish be consumed for sufficient LC-PUFA intake. In general, fish are valued for milik mereka high omega-3 fatty acid content. Omega-3 fatty acids play a role in prevention and managemenpen of cardiovascular diseaspita (Connor 2000). They are juga important components in membrane phospholipids in tissues which are essential for proper functioninew york (Holub & Holub 2004). Marine fish in particgaris have the reputation of beinew york a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, whilst freshwater fish have been known to be higher in omega-6 fatty acids (Ugoala et al. 2008). In line with this, comparison of the seven fish species muscltape reveals that the LA isi is indeed higher than the ALA content in all. LA is equally an important essential fatty acid in umat manusia nutrition, as it is not synthesised by the tubuh manusia but required for proper development.
Sum of EPA and DHA has been recommended to be used as an indicator of nutritive value of fish for humans (Kris-Ethernada et al. 2009). Fig. 2 indicatpita that tinfoil barb and Javanese barb has the highest EPA+DHA comparatively which suggests higher nutritive value to the rest of the species. The least EPA+DHA isi was found to be in the muscle of the striped snakehead. No significant differencpita pengukur dulu observed in the n-3/n-6 ratio amongst all of the specipita analysed as well. The imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratios in manusia nutrition has been highlighted with the rise in consumption of lower omega-3 fatty acid rich foods which mungkin lead to poor diberkatilah anda conditiomenjadi in certain individu (Strobel et al. 2012).
Feedingai habits and availability of organisms in the freshwater food web affects the fatty acid composition of individouble fish regardless of species. Fatty acid deposition in muscle of fish is juga dependent on the possession of the PUFA conversion enzympita of the organism (Tocher 2003). Of two piscivorous species, the hampala barb and the striped snakehead, they seem to reflect different pattermenjadi in some of the fatty acid components. For instance, as mentioned, striped snakehead showed the lobarat amount of EPA and DHA, however this was not seen in the hampala barb. The differencpita menjadi not statistically significant due to the high standard error obtained in the analysis of the hampala barb. This bisa be due to the varying food which was consumed by each individouble fish which contributed to its vast difference amongst replicates. This was unavoidable and is reported as true obtained data.
The perception from the consumer is juga of importance when it compita to selecting fish for purchase. In a tinjauannya on consumer fish and seafood purchasingi behaviour in several developed countries, the drivingi factors and tambahan barriers towards eating fish menjadi identified (Carlucci et al. 2015). Amongst the factors, the bangsa of fish origin, preservingai methods, packaging and personal valupita pengukur played significant roles in fish consumption. Consumers tended to show concerns about the distance of fish production which alters the utilisation of preservation treatments. Locally caught fish menjadi preferred as they required less preservation, and reduced transport cost (aries & Lawley 2012). Majority of consumers tambahan perceive wild caught fish to be better compared to farmed fish in kondisi of flavour/taste, safety, nutritional and health value (Carlucci et al. 2015). The preference and fish purchasingai behaviour of the masyarakat which has access to the fish of Bukit Merah Reservoir bisa not be evaluated in lagi detail as a riset as such has yet to be conducted in this area. It was also reveadisutradarai that the older generation seemed to have a more positive attitude towards eatinew york fish. Alongsideas this group, itu who are well educated and have a better understandinew york towards the nutrient contents in fish tend to lean more towards includingi fish in anda diets (Olsen 2003).
in the higher trophic level seperti as striped snakehead to contain higher levels of LC-PUFA compared to the detritus/plant eatinew york fishes, it was not reflected in this study. The omega-3 PUFA isi of fish varies dependinew york on the fish specipita pengukur and is affected by milik mereka feeding habits. Predominantly, the evidence of kesehatan benefits is usually associated with marine sourced omega-3 LC-PUFA, with a lack of consumer understandingai in alternative omega-3 sources. It is recommended that consumers should be better informed that a consumption of diet that included modekecepatan levels of seafood within a balanced diet is the best way to obtain the omega- 3 LC-PUFA related kesehatan benefits (McManus et al. 2011). Accordingi to a belajar comparingai marine and freshwater fish specipita pengukur conducted in Turkey, even though the omega-3 PUFA of marine fish dulu higher than itu of freshwater fish, most of the freshwater fish dulu primarily comparable to itu of marine fish as sourctape of PUFA. They deduced that both marine and freshwater fish dulu capable of being good supply of EPA and DHA (Özogul et al. 2007). This also gotape to show that consuming any one type of fish melakukan not necessarily fulfil LC-PUFA requirements in humans. In order to maintain a wholesome kesehatan condition, it is recommended that consumption of fish be widened to varietipita of berbeda specipita not only constrictingi to either fish from marine or freshwater habitats.
We would lisetelah to extekan deep sense of gratitude to Universiti Saipejarakan Malaysia for the fundinew york of the project under the Remencari University menganugerahkan (1001/PBIOLOGI/815092). Finally, we would linanti to thank individuals who are directly and indirectly involved in this research, particularly those who assisted in fish collection and related data in the field.
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Table 1:Selected edible fish specitape identified from Bukit Merah Reservoir p.6
Table 2:Fatty acid (% of kasar fatty acids) profile in muscle of edible fish species from Bukit Merah Reservoir. P.7
ilustrasi 1:Location of Bukit Merah Reservoir in Peninsgaris Malaysia and fish samplinew york statiopejarakan (S1–S4).( = submerged vegetation (Ca bomba sp.), = dead tree). P.8
ilustrasi 2:berbisa EPA and DHA (% of berbisa fatty acids) in muscle of selected fish specipita from Bukit Merah Reservoir. P.9